2020 (1)
Creative Cities off the Beaten Path

Constance DeVereaux / Steffen Höhne / Martin Tröndle (Eds.)

ISBN 978-3-8376-4957-4

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Introduction
Creative Cities off the Beaten Path

Revisiting the conceptual and theoretical foundations that have informed discourses, research, and cultural policy development on creative cities to date, this issue offers perspectives on creativity off the beaten path. The contributions provide critical reflections on different notions and narratives of creativity, examine the potential and downsides of creativity as a development tool, and integrate perspectives from cities and regions that are often overlooked in the Anglo-Saxon-dominated creativity discourse. Researchers and policymakers who are new to the field of creative cities will gain useful insights into theories and methods on creative city discourse, and those who are already knowledgeable in the field will be provided with fresh ideas and voices that pose the potential to reframe and rethink the role of creativity in theory and practice.

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Table of Contents
  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0101

    • Abstract

      The proliferation, internationally, of local cultural plans focused on the development of a ‘creative city’ has been remarkable with even intergovernmental bodies, such as UNESCO, fostering the use of creativity in strategies to revive cities and urban economies. This essay reflects on some of the contradictory and uneven conceptual and political foundations that have shaped cultural planning, suggesting that inherent tensions are being played out in the friction between cultural planning as promise and cultural planning as strategic action by local governments. What is evident is that there is a need to rethink urban cultural planning and its implicit agenda to enable it to emerge as a truly innovative approach to supporting the diverse cultures of every day urban life.

    Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0102

  • On the Creative City Concept

    Milica Matovic, Roberto San Salvador der Valle

    Essay
    • Abstract

      Thirty years ago, the concept that in some way unites culture and the city arose. In this essay, we talk about the creative city, the concept developed from the creative and cultural industries by various authors – mostly Anglo-Saxons, that defend the idea that the future of cities depends on human potential and creativity. In order to summarize different approaches to the concept of a creative city, this essay offers the historical review of the concept summed up in three basic axes. First, the creative city that focuses on the idea of creativity as a set of tools for urban development (LANDRY 2012; BAYCAN-LEVENT 2010; UNCTAD 2008). Second, the notion of a creative city that is strongly supported by the use of creative activities/industries (FLORIDA 2004; MERKEL 2008; MILES/PADDISON 2005). Finally, a third approach that, analyzing cities, highlights the ability to attract creative skills, that is, creative human resources (MILES/PADDISON 2005; PRATT 2008; SCOTT 2006).

    Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0103

    • Abstract

      This article explores how the different forms of youth involvement in underground music scenes tend to develop into do-it-yourself (DIY) careers by triggering acquired expertise resulting from a long immersion in these scenes. It begins with an analysis of the representations of Portuguese punks about DIY and the ways in which they experience and develop networks and skills. Concomitantly, through a recent analysis carried out in Brazil in different underground music scenes, I examine the importance of DIY showing the approximation of two different musical, social, and geographical universes. This focus, besides amplifying the glimpse outside the Anglocentric look into creative cities, serves to understand how underground music scenes are a breath of fresh air when it comes to creative activity beyond mainstream cultural industries.

    Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0104

    • Abstract

      This work compares two major Mexican events held in World Heritage cities. Guanajuato is seat to The Festival Internacional Cervantino. This festival represents the essence of a Mexican region that highlights the Hispanic past as part of its identity discourse. Meanwhile, Oaxaca is famous because of the Guelaguetza, an indigenous traditional festival whose roots go back in time for five centuries. Focused on cultural change and sustainability, tourist perception, identity narrative, and city theming, the analysis included anthropological and urban views and methodologies. Results show high contrasts between the analyzed events, due in part to antagonist (Indigenous vs. Hispanic) identities. Such tension is characteristic not only in Mexico but in most parts of Latin America, where cultural syncretism is still ongoing.

    Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0105

    • Abstract

      This paper offers the case study of the city of Karaganda, on conceptions and improvements in the field of creative cities policies in Kazakhstan and suggests some modalities for improved development. An incipient process in considering cultural policies for promoting more attractive and livable cities has emerged in Kazakhstan since its split from the Soviet Union, but its progress is one of non-integrated paths. This is due to the absence of civil society, low involvement of the business community in tourism growth, and strong dependence on the centralized government for funding. Although policy makers have previously worked on creative city design, a lack of coherence in implementation and a lack of unity in conveying meaning to urban developers, has stunted progress.

    Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0106

    • Abstract

      Though fast becoming a very popular tourist attraction center, Pretoria is primarily the seat of power of the South African government and where the office of the State President is located. Amongst other edifices, the iconic historical monuments, the Union Buildings located in Pretoria, are cultural spaces capable of qualifying Pretoria as the creative city of ‘peace.’ Conceived in 1910, the buildings were erected to commemorate the “Union” of the South African people during the apartheid era. Many of the artefacts in the Union Buildings represent South African history and culture of the past and they awaken national consciousness of the present. This paper is a critical appraisal of Pretoria as a creative city with magnificent and metaphorical architectural designs of buildings; and more importantly, the paper interrogates the continued relevance of the Union Buildings and the numerous visual art works therein as a unification site in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0107

    • Abstract

      The focus of this essay is, first, to see if the Transylvanian city of Cluj can really be counted amongst ‘post-industrial’ cities – or, at least, if its strategies of development would really allow it to be listed as a ‘post-industrial’ city in the foreseeable future. Secondly, the essay will try to find the set of factors that determines the city’s current – as it will unfold – ambitious development and, future – no less ambitious – projects. Thirdly, the link between the post-industrial spin and the emergence of an important creative industries scene will be considered, as the essay will try to explain the role of creative industries in the new post-industrial economic dynamic of the city.

    Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0108

    • Abstract

      Despite progressive accreditation regulations and changing vocational concepts of young musicians, it is hypothesised here that music performance programs in German higher music education have not yet appropriately included non-musical career-relevant issues. Curricula for all music performance programs in German higher education (orchestral instruments) were analysed for the proportions of credit points offered for different subjects and for their respective study goals in terms of vocational application. Results suggest that career-relevant non-musical subjects amount to less than 2 % of the overall credits. Furthermore, the various career goals stated in module handbooks are not necessarily reflected in the curricula. The international tendency towards portfolio careers is not yet supported by the education programs offered in Germany. It is concluded that students are still not sufficiently educated to face artistic careers beyond traditional job profiles.

    Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0109

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0110

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0111

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0112

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0113

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0114

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0115

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0116

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0117

  • Journal of Arts Management and Cultural Policy 2020 (1)

    doi 10.14361/zkmm-2020-0118